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CH21 – The Furnace of Civil War

Time Frame: 1861-1865

Objectives: At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Describe the consequences for both sides of the North’s defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.
  • Outline Union’s original military strategy and how Lincoln was forced to adjust it during the course of the War.
  • Explain the critical importance of the failed Peninsula Campaign and the Battle of Antietam in changing the Civil War from a limited war for the Union into a total war against slavery.
  • Describe the role that African Americans played during the war.
  • Explain why the battles of Gettysburg in the East and Vicksburg in the West decisively turned the tide toward Union victory and Confederate defeat.
  • Describe the politics of the War in both North and South, and the end of the South’s hope for winning independence through a defeat of Lincoln in the election of 1864.
  • Describe the end of the war and list its final consequences.
  • [wpaudio url=”″ text=”Listen to a summary of Chapter 21″ dl=”0″]



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